Participles are adjectival forms, created with prefixes. There are six, three active and three passive.
|past active||PstAP||jé-||jétad||having spoken|
|future active||FAP||aŧ-||aŧtad||going to speak|
|present passive||PPP||tré||trétad||being spoken|
|future passive||FPP||óca-||ócatad||going to be spoken|
The verbal noun is the noun-form of a verb, the act of its action. It serves a similar pupose to both the infinitive and the gerund in other languages. It is formed with the suffix -il.
|tadil||to speak, speaking*|
|fónil||to drink, drinking* (as in “his drinking is getting out of hand”)|
*Note to English speakers: it is very easy to confuse the verbal noun and the present active participle, since they often both end in -ing when translated into English. They are not the same, so be careful. The participle is an adjective and the verbal noun is a noun.
The verbal noun retains some of its verbal character, however, and can take any object that the verb it is derived from can.
tadil uryór speaking a name
fónil uržif drinking water
The object of the verbal noun is also often incorporated, especially in an abstract context. Notice that the incorporated object comes between the verb stem and the verbal noun affix.
A deverbal noun denoting a single instance of an action is formed by suffixing -lú to the verb root.
tadlú utterance (what you said to him just now)
ledlú walk (we’ll take one after dinner)
zeklú pull (give the drawer one, and it’ll open)