Verbal Nouns & Adjectives



Participles are adjectival forms, created with prefixes. There are six, three active and three passive.

past active PstAP jé- jétad having spoken
present active PAP ya- yatad speaking*
future active FAP aŧ- aŧtad going to speak
past passive PstPP ír- írtad spoken
present passive PPP tré trétad being spoken
future passive FPP óca- ócatad going to be spoken

Verbal Noun

The verbal noun is the noun-form of a verb, the act of its action. It serves a similar pupose to both the infinitive and the gerund in other languages. It is formed with the suffix -il.

tadil to speak, speaking*
fónil to drink, drinking* (as in “his drinking is getting out of hand”)

*Note to English speakers: it is very easy to confuse the verbal noun and the present active participle, since they often both end in -ing­ when translated into English. They are not the same, so be careful. The participle is an adjective and the verbal noun is a noun.

The verbal noun retains some of its verbal character, however, and can take any object that the verb it is derived from can.

tadil uryór       speaking a name

fónil uržif       drinking water

The object of the verbal noun is also often incorporated, especially in an abstract context. Notice that the incorporated object comes between the verb stem and the verbal noun affix.

tadyóril              name-speaking

fónžifil                 water-drinking

Instantial Noun

A deverbal noun denoting a single instance of an action is formed by suffixing -lú to the verb root.

tadlú     utterance (what you said to him just now)

ledlú      walk (we’ll take one after dinner)

zeklú     pull (give the drawer one, and it’ll open)