Number & Person

 

Number is indicated by a suffix. There are three numbers in Túfóžan verbs: singular, paucal, and plural. Singular is an unmarked form, with no suffix. Paucal is used to indicate a small non-singular number, usually fewer than six, though this varies somewhat from speaker to speaker in a manner similar to English “a few”.

Number Suffix
singular
paucal
plural -at

Person is indicated by a prefix. 1st person has two variants, inclusive and exclusive, which refer to the status of the audience with regard to the subject. There are also four forms of 2nd person: high interactivity (HI) with three social levels (superior (SU), peer (PR), and inferior(IN)), and middle interactivity (MI). 3rd person has only one form. (For usage, see Interactivity Level and Social Standing (Gender)).

Person Prefix
1st inc že-
1st exc a-
2nd HI SU ŧó-
2nd HI PR dí-
2nd HI IN so-
2nd MI sú-
3rd

 

afón
1.exc-drink
I drink
žefónat
1.inc-drink
we drink
dífóní
2.HI.PR-drink-PC
you drink
(to a small number of peers)
fón ar ídó
drink DEF horse
the horse drinks

Because subjects in the 1st and 2nd persons are well-specified in the verb prefix, Túfóžan is a pro-drop language in these persons. Pronouns do exist, however, and may be used for emphasis. 3rd person properly requires an explicitly stated subject in the form of a noun or pronoun.