Interrogative sentences are properly indicated by inserting the particle fa after the verb form, before any tense/aspect or mood marker. The voice also rises toward the end of the sentence.

díšan fa? šan fa dai?
2.HI.PR-dance Q dance Q who
are you dancing?
(to one peer)
who is dancing?

In informal speech, the question particle is often omitted. This has generally become acceptable in sentences with interrogative pronouns, and the particle is considered optional. In sentences without interrogative pronouns, however, the practice is frowned upon by polite, educated society even in speech, because it leaves tone alone as an indicator of the interrogative nature of the sentence (the Túfóžan script has no equivalent to the question mark).

Strong and Weak Imperative (Imperative/Hortative/Jussive)

What the Túfóžans call the “strong imperative” is formed with a particle, , which is placed at the beginning of the sentence. The verb is most often seen in 2nd person form, but may also be used with 1st or 3rd person.

bó sofón! bó dítadat! bó dén klír! bó želedí!
IMP 2.HI.IN-drink IMP 2.HI.PR-speak-PL IMP be light IMP
drink! (to one inferior) speak! (to several peers) let there be light! We walk!
(there will be no argument)

Negative imperatives are expressed by attaching the negative prefix lé- to the imperative particle.

lébó sofón!
NEG-IMP 2.HI.IN-drink
don’t drink! (to one inferior)

The strong imperative is not generally used in addressing those of superior rank. Its most common such use is by servants such as nursemaids and teachers in addressing minor children of higher rank in their direct charge. It is also considered impolite to give direct orders to strangers.

The “weak imperative” (sometimes called the hortative or jussive) also uses the particle , but it is placed after the verb, in the manner of other mood particles. The connotation is more of a suggestion than an order, so the form is considered more polite. It may be used in the 1st or 3rd person as well as the 2nd. In idiomatic English, the verb “let” is often used to express this, though this can be awkward in the 3rd person, because it may be confused with an order to give permission.

žefónat bó! fón bó a príl IMP drink IMP DEF man
Let’s drink! (inclusive plural) Let the man drink!

In those languages which have no way to differentiate between strong and weak imperatives in the 2nd person, such as English, the weak imperative may often be translated with the inclusion of a polite request marker, such as “please”, for which there is no parallel construct in Túfóžan.

dífón bó!
2.HI.PR-drink IMP
please, drink!


Optative is used to express that which is wished for. It is formed using the particle trí.

díyet trí na mír
2.HI.PR-acquire OPT FUT strength
may you acquire strength
tad trí a príl
speak OPT DEF man
would that the man would speak
(I wish the man would speak)


dén trí in a sel etní airin
be OPT PAST DEF friend GEN-1.exc COMI-2.HI.PR
would that my friend had been with you


Subjunctive & Resultative

The subjunctive, formed using the particle , is used to express the hypothetical or unreal, and that which could be (under certain conditions) but isn’t.

píh wó in ré ar urcúl
had s/he seen the dog

The resultative is expressed using the particle íjí. It is used, in conjunction with the subjunctive, to indicate a hypothetical result.

dén wó ré jan, lúd íjí ré uršpimér
3-be-SG SBJ NOM-3.HI.PR-SG NOM-nobleperson-SG,
3-have-SG RSLT 3.HI.PR-SG ACC-PRFS-serve-PL
were s/he a lord/lady, s/he would have servants
ser wó na a mís a tyakleb, đú íjí na ta urrofún
3-relocate-SG SBJ FUT DEF NOM-cat-SG DEF TERM-hearth-SG,
3-feel-SG RSLT FUT NOM-3.MI-SG ACC-warm-ness-SG
were the cat to move to the hearth, it would feel warmth.

Notice that the first example above is in the present tense and the second in future tense. This is because irreal states are traditionally stated in the present, but actions are considered to be hypothetical future, and their results must follow suit.


The abilitative, formed using the particle róš, is used to express ability.

apíh róš ar urídó díhaup fa róš?
a-píh-Ø róš ar ur-ídó-Ø dí-haup-Ø fa róš
1-see-SG ABIL DEF ACC-horse-SG 2.HI.PR-swim Q ABIL
I can see the horse can you swim?


The permissive, formed using the particle ší, is used to express allowability and request permission.

ašan fa ší? sođím ší
a-šan-Ø fa ší? so-đím-Ø ší
1.exc-dance-SG PERM 2.HI.IN-eat-SG PERM
may I dance? you may eat


Used to express requirement (must, have to, need to), the compulsory is formed using the particle .

aškúr yú
a-škúr-Ø yú
1.exc-dress-SG CMPL
I must dress


Used to express a preference or admonition (should, ought to, it would be best if), the obligational is expressed using the particle žam.

díšad žam urrin
dí-šad-Ø žam ur-rin-Ø
you should kiss him/her


Used to express anticipation or expectation (be supposed to, be expected to), the expectational is expressed using the particle .

ašan cú
a-šan-Ø cú
1.exc-dance-SG EXP
I expect to dance


Used to express willingness, the dispositional is formed using the particle éf.

ašan éf
a-šan-Ø éf
1.exc-dance-SG DISP
I am willing to dance


Used to express having a right to or being entitled to do something, the prerogative is formed using the particle . Stronger than permissive, it implies a reference to either social tradition or written law.

tad kú wen
Ø-tad-Ø kú Ø-wen-Ø
3-speak-SG PRER NOM-3.HI.SU-SG
s/he (superior) is entitled to speak


Desire, want. DSD




The speaker is deducing based on evidence. (That must be the ambassador.) DDCT


Used to express that the statement is unlikely, or that the speaker is unsure that the statement is true, the dubitative is formed using the particle šwa.

men šwa mé urke
Ø-men-Ø šwa Ø-mé ur-ke
3-take-SG DUB NOM-3.HI.IN ACC-3.LI
s/he probably didn’t take it
/ I doubt s/he took it (of an inferior)


The speaker is guessing or speculating. (He might be her son.) SPEC

Combined Moods

Most mood particles may be combined when more than one applies to a given verb. When this occurs there is a preferred order. For example, optative or subjunctive will come first, with abilitative or permissive appended to it.

als ašan wóší díhwap tríróš
if 1.exc-dance SBJ-PERM 2.HI.PR-swim OPT-ABIL
if I may dance may you be able to swim

Imperative and interrogative particles do not combine with other mood particles. They always come before any others.