Syllable Structure

Túfóžan syllables are formed in the pattern (C)(C)V(C)(C), where C is a consonant and V is a vowel or diphthong.

All single consonants are allowable onsets; all are allowable codas except c, j, w, and y.

Allowable onset clusters are: bl, br, bw, by, đl, đr, dl, dr, dw, dy, fl, fr, fw, fy, gl, gr, gw, gy, hl, hm, hn, hr, kl, kr, kw, ky, pl, pr, pw, py, šk, šl, šm, šn, šp, šr, št, šw, šy, sk, sl, sm, sn, sŋ, sp, sr, st, sw, sy, ŧl, ŧr, ŧw, ŧy, tl, tr, tw, ty, zb, zd, zg, žl, žr, zl, zr, zw, zy.

Allowable coda clusters are: ld, lđ, lf, lh, lk, lp, ls, lš, lt, lŧ, lz, lž, mf, mp, ŋk, ns, nt, nŧ, rf, rh, rk, rm, rn, rŋ, rp, rs, rš, rt, rŧ, šk, šp, št, sk, sp, st, zb, zd, zg, žb, žd.

In compounds of two or more morphemes, identical vowels that cluster (ie, CV.VC) tend to collapse together, and if the two vowels can form an allowable diphthong, they will, merging two syllables into one. In cases where the clustered vowels are not identical and cannot form a legal diphthong, they continue to be in separate syllables and an intrusive semivowel [j] inserts itself between them. This is written in the Roman orthography as /y/. This also occurs when a diphthong merges with a vowel.


Stress is determined by syllable weight. Diphthongs are heavier than simple vowels. Closed syllables are heavier than open syllables. Syllables that close with a consonant cluster are heavier than those that close with a single consonant. Ex:

pa < pau < pan < paun < pant < paunt

One-syllable words that are perceived as having only an auxiliary role in an utterance are often unstressed.

In two-syllable words, stress falls on the heavier syllable, on the first if they are equal.

In words of three or more syllables, stress falls on the heaviest of the last three syllables, favoring the positions further from the end of the word in cases of equal weight.