Pronouns with Modifiers


Túfóžan pronouns, unlike English ones, can take demonstratives and adjectives. Here are some of the ways in which this construction is used:


It is not unusual for a Túfóžan, speaking about two friends for whom the same pronoun () is applicable, to refer to them as ré wa (“the s/he that”) and ré pén (“the s/he other”). Phrases like this may be translated as “that one” and “the other one” for lack of a better mechanism. It is just as common for a speaker to add modifiers to create differentiation. For example, ré sla  “the s/he tall” or “the tall one”.

Addition of Information

Adjectives may also be used to add more information without having to resort to an additional sentence or clause. The result is not always easily translatable into languages that have no such feature. Below is one of the more common forms of translation into English (but it opens up the possibility that a causal relationship exists between the happiness and the drinking, which is not implied at all in the Túfóžan).

ŧófón wí arn
ŧó-fón-Ø Ø-wí-Ø arn
2.SU.HI-drink-SG NOM-2.SU.HI-SG happy
You, happy, drink.

Notice the use of the pronoun . Normally this would be dropped, but since a modifier cannot hold a noun phrase together by itself, it is forced back into the sentence.

Formal Address and Self-Reference

Túfóžans use the demonstrative (“this”) with a 3rd person HI pronoun only when speaking of themselves in extremely formal speech. It is considered rude to use 1st or 2nd person when, for example, placing a formal petition before the Head of a House or addressing someone who vastly outranks oneself.