Noun Cases


Túfóžan has no adpositions; instead, it has 46 noun cases, expressed with prefixes.

Transrelative Cases

Nominative (NOM): unmarked
–subject; predicative subject complements

Ø-tad-Ø Ø-wí-Ø
3-speak-SG NOM-3.HI.SU-SG
S/he (superior) speaks
dén ar iŧmír šol
Ø-dén-Ø ar Ø-iŧmír-Ø Ø-šol-Ø
3-be-SG DEF NOM-Ithmír-SG NOM-adult.female-SG
Ithmír is a woman

Accusative (ACC): ur-
–direct object

đím in wí ar urliŋ
Ø-đím-Ø Ø-wí-Ø ar ur-liŋ-Ø
3-eat-SG NOM-3.HI.SU-SG DEF ACC-fruit-SG
S/he (superior) eats the fruit

Attributive (ATB): kó-
–a conferred status or designation

yór in a milrin ar urzén kóyiŧmír
Ø-yór-Ø in a Ø-milrin-Ø ar ur-zén-Ø kó-iŧmír-Ø
 3-name-SG PAST DEF NOM-Milrin-SG DEF ACC-child-SG ATB-Ithmír-SG
 Milrin named the child Ithmír
yórat in wenš urmé kórilmenorn
Ø-yór-at in Ø-wen-š ur-mé-Ø kó-ril-men-orn-Ø
3-call-PL PAST NOM-3.HI.SU-PL ACC-3.HI.IN-SG ATB-agent-take-dishonorably-SG
They (superior) called her/him (inferior) a thief

Dative (DAT): on-
–indirect object; experiencer of certain (mostly stative) verbs

sen in ré ar urgúm ar onšoltar
Ø-sen-Ø in Ø-ré-Ø ar ur-gúm-Ø ar on-šoltar-Ø
3-bring-SG PAST NOM-3.HI.PR-SG DEF ACC-doll-SG DEF DAT-girl-SG
S/he (peer) brought the doll to the girl
múr onré
Ø-múr-Ø on-ré-Ø
3-live-SG DAT-3.HI.PR-SG
S/he (peer) lives

Instrumental (INST): iž-
–the (direct) tool by means of which
he wrote with a pencil; he came by boat; he tripped on the stair; he spoke (in) French

Aninstrumental (ANST): flí-
–the instrument is absent
he killed her without a weapon

Causative (CAUS): erí-
–starter of a chain of events, indirect responsibility

baus in ré erínayam
Ø-baus-Ø in Ø-ré-Ø erí-naya-m
S/he (peer) failed because of us (few)

Benefactive (BEN): aŋ-
I died for love; she opened the door for him

žemérí ar aŋcifsa
že-mér-í ar aŋ-cif-sa-Ø DEF BEN-people-golden-SG
We (inclusive, few) serve the Golden People

Malefactive (MAL): leŋ-

pyot in ar ídó leŋní
Ø-pyot-Ø in ar Ø-ídó-Ø leŋ-ní-Ø
3-die-SG DEF NOM-horse-SG MAL-1.exc-SG
The horse died on me
ŋab in ré a leŋjan
Ø-ŋab-Ø in Ø-ré-Ø a leŋ-jan-Ø
3-fight-SG PAST NOM-3.HI.PR-SG DEF MAL-noble-SG
S/he (peer) fought against the nobleperson
klómúz a leŋsiŧ
Ø-klóm-úz-Ø a leŋ-siŧ-Ø
NOM-trap-tool-SG DEF MAL-rat-SG
a trap for the rat

Thematic (THM): aš-
–subject matter
a story about a woman; he was known for his dangerous ideas; I spoke to him regarding his work

Possessive & Associative Cases

Genitive (GEN): et-
–non-control belonging or association, contents of a container, dates
owner of the house; the sixth day of spring; a basket containing/of apple(s)*; the heartbreak of unrequited love; a pickle vendor; the political climate (the climate of politics); the girl in the blue dress

a sel etní
a Ø-sel-Ø et-ní-Ø
DEF NOM-friend-SG GEN-1exc-SG
my friend
iŧmír ar etmilrin
Ø-iŧmír-SG ar et-milrin-SG
VOC-Ithmír-SG DEF GEN-Milrin-SG
Ithmír of Milrin (Ithmír adult daughter of Milrin)

*Genitive constructions that are expressed as plurals in English (“a bunch of flowers”) are expressed in the singular in Túfóžan (“a bunch of flower”).

Interpretive (INTP): pwé-
–subjective filter
Spenser’s Boston; life from a child’s perspective; his view of the situation

Possessive (POSS): yí-
–ownership, control over the possessed’s fate
Ithmír’s saber; his arm

a laiš a yíjan
a Ø-laiš-Ø a yí-jan-Ø
DEF NOM-daughter-SG DEF POSS-noble.person-SG
the lady’s (minor) daughter
ar ídó yíré
ar Ø-ídó-Ø yí-ré-Ø
her/his (peer) horse

Originative (ORGN): hil-
a shell from the ocean; translated from the Túfóžan; his ideas for the project; our gift to you

príl a hilzaegros
Ø-príl-Ø a hil-zaegros-Ø
NOM-adult.male-SG DEF ORGN-Zaegros-SG
a man from Zaegros
a ŧrait ar hilšol
a Ø-ŧrait-Ø a hil-šol-Ø
DEF NOM-book-SG DEF ORGN-adult.female-SG
the woman’s book (the one she wrote)

Essential (ESSL): hra-
–material or essential nature
a wooden box; an oat cake;a game of ball; play ball; a drink of water; a small amount of blood; a spiritual man

Similative (SIM): miŋ-
a nose like a saber; as big as (having bigness like) a house

Comparative (COMP): grí-
smaller than a breadbox

Concessive (CON): jak-
–in defiance of
we went despite her disapproval; the rules notwithstanding, I won’t promise that; despite him, we managed to do it

Purposive (PURP): žwa-
–the intended or actual purpose
your lunch money; the throwing knife; the apple tree

Comitative (COMI): ai-
she arrived with many bags;

đím in ré ar aiŧmír
Ø-đím-Ø in Ø-ré-Ø ar ai-iŧmír-Ø
S/he (peer) ate with Ithmír.
hisí in rém ar aiđort
Ø-his-í in Ø-ré-m ar ai-đort-Ø
 They (few, peer) leaned against the wall.
S/he glued it to the table


Anacomitative (ANAC): la-
he left without his hat; the horses except the black one

aserat in a layiŧmír
a-ser-at in a la-iŧmír-Ø
3.exc-go/come-PL PAST DEF ANAC-Ithmír-SG
We (exclusive) went/came without Ithmír

Partitive (PART): ip-
–a portion of; also used with numbers
six sabers; half of a cake; some of the men
definiteness matters; use collective for indefinite (six of all sabers)

Commutational (COMM): smú-
–exchange or substitution
he ate bread rather than meat; they used rye for wheat; he got twenty gold for his horse; he traded his dog for a new coat; he went instead of John

Aversive (AVRS): aum-
he wore a hat to avoid sunburn; he called lest she worry (to prevent her worrying)

Capacitative (CAP): ŋal-
she hired him as a gardner; he serves as a guinea pig; they made him ambassador

Assessive (ASS): ge-
–ratio of measurement
we charge by the day; she makes six in a month; a hundred miles per gallon

Vocative (VOC): unmarked
–address, specification
Oedipus the king; the island of Hawai’i; Mary, did you see it?
Note: the Vocative, when used for address, is the only case in which proper names do not require the definite article

Cases of Location, Motion & Time

Prolative (PROL): tala-
–the route through which
he came by sea; their route was via Mindros; we heard it through him; a newspaper story

Concursive (CNCR): gyú-
–occuring during a period when
as a child, I had apples for breakfast; at night we sleep; during his sabbatical his health improved greatly

Accessive (ACSV): bau-
–at the moment of
the party begins at sunset; they were killed upon impact

Prolapsive (PRLP): fes-
–the period of duration
we looked for a week; he wrote it over the course of six months; he spent many years here; it rained through the night

Precursive (PREC): cel-
he bathes before breakfast

Postcursive (PSTC): neca-
after sunset, the market is quiet

Elapsive (ELP): zbu-
–time since
she died three years ago

Allapsive (ALP): kre-
–time until
in a while, they will start; we will leave in three days

Episodic (EPS): ođí-
–repeated instance
he calls her weekly; she works on Saturdays; we stay there in the autumn

Prolimitive (PLIM): zed-
the paper is due on Tuesday; be home by noon

Initiative (INIT): đlé-
I’ve had it since Mother’s death; he practices beginning at dawn; the road that starts at Northport

Terminative (TERM): tyak-
he came to the house; she lived here until adulthood; the house burned to ashes; he drank himself to death; she became a fugitive

Adessive (ADS): ta-
–position at or on
the book sits on the shelf; he met her at the gate; at night, we stay at home

Circumessive (CIRC): ŧú-
–position or movement around a perimeter (inside or outside)
they put a wall around the town; he circled the room

Pervasive (PERV): mífa-
–position or movement among, within, or throughout
they found candidates throughout the land; she wandered around the grounds

Allative (ALL): ak-
–movement toward, end not implied
she went toward the house; he worked toward his master’s degree; they went east; it came down

Ablative (ABL): ist-
–movement away from
he walked away from the table; he departed from the city; she quit her job

Perlative (PERL): bí-
–movement along
we walked along the beach; he wandered the streets

Vialis (VIA): ra-
–movement across or through (implies out the other side)
they came through the gate; he ran across the lawn; she came by way of Northport