Non-Singular Expressions


Túfóžan has three ways to express non-singular quantities in nouns: paucal, plural, and collective. All are expressed as suffixes.

Paucal (-m/-om/-am)

When a Túfóžan speaks of a few items of the same kind, she uses the paucal form. Usually, this implies a number of six or fewer, but this varies from speaker to speaker.

The basic paucal suffix is -m. This is used on nouns that end in vowels or liquids (l, r).

ídó ídóm
horse (a few) horses
sai saim
leaf (a few) leaves
príltar príltarm
boy (a few) boys

Nouns that end in other consonants take an alternative form of the suffix, based upon the last vowel in the base noun. If this is a back vowel (u, ú, o, ó) the suffix is -om; if a front or central vowel (a, e, é, i, í), it is -am.

ríh ríham
town (a few) towns
šuŋk šuŋkom
feather (a few) feathers

In nouns that end in m, the final m of the stem tends to dissimilate and become a voiced bilabial stop (b) when the suffix is applied.

gúm *gúmom > gúbom
doll (a few) dolls

Plural (-š/-oš/-aš)

When many of the same noun are meant, the plural is used.

For nouns ending in vowels or semivowels, the plural suffix is

(many) horses
(many) leaves

As with the paucal, the plural suffix varies for nouns that end in consonants: -oš for those nouns whose final vowel is a back vowel, and -aš for those with front or central vowels.

(many) towns
(many) feathers

Collective (-rŧ/-orŧ/-arŧ)

When an entire class of noun is referenced, the collective is used.

For nouns ending in vowels, the collective ending is -rŧ

horses (as a class)
leaves (as a class)

Nouns ending in -r adopt only the :

boys (as a class)

In nouns ending in consonants (including the liquid l), the suffix varies to match the final stem vowel: -orŧ for those with back vowels and -arŧ for those with front or central vowels.

towns (as a class)
feathers (as a class)

Note that the collective can be used in Túfóžan to denote a class in general (in the indefinite) or the total membership of a particular group (in the definite).

a ríharŧ a yífés
(all) the towns of the country